The Nature of Middle-Earth
#21
Numenoreans had cross-bows:
"The bowyers were a great craft. They made bows of many kinds: long bows, and smaller bows, especially those used for shooting from horse-back; and they also devised cross-bows, at first used mainly against predatory birds."
NoMe, section Three chapter XIII Of the land and beasts of Númenor
Text dated to 1965 and associated with A Description of the Island of Numenor in UT.
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#22
Thanks for sharing that. I'll have to revise or rewrite my old article on crossbows in Middle-earth. I've added a short note to the article for now, linking to your post.
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#23
(April 7th, 2022, 10:20 AM)Michael Wrote: Thanks for sharing that. I'll have to revise or rewrite my old article on crossbows in Middle-earth. I've added a short note to the article for now, linking to your post.
Yeah, I guess I don't get to say no crossbows in Middle-earth anymore either, or dismiss it as fanfic.

I'll continue to post bits and pieces from NoMe on occasion.
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#24
"The Númenórean men, being tall and powerful, could shoot with speed and accuracy upon foot from great long bows, whose shafts would carry to great distance (some 600 yards or more), and at lesser range were of great penetration."
NoMe, section Three chapter XIII Of the land and beasts of Númenor

Some information on historical archer requirements in England and modern records with historical reconstructions:
"Young men in their fighting prime were expected to deliver aimed shots at more than eleven score, or 220 yards, using their regular, heavy military projectiles. In experiments described by Strickland and Hardy, a replica of one of the longbows found on the Mary Rose of 150 lb draw-weight was able to shoot a 53.6 g arrow 360 yards (328 m) and a 95.9 g a distance of  272 yards (249.9 m).

In 2015 Joe Gibbs of the English Warbow Society shot 306 yards (279.8 m) with a livery arrow of 63.5 g, using a 170 lb longbow of Italian yew made by Ian Coote, and a 965 grain standard arrow 311 yards (284.37 m). In the 16th century, prizes were also awarded for distances shot with the lighter flight arrows: Eight pence for 20 score (365.76 m), 12 pence for 22 score (402.34 m), and 20 pence for 24 score yards (438.91 m)."
(Gibbs can use a 200lb longbow, but says it is very tiring).
and:
"The current record with an English longbow is 412.82 m, shot by Jószef Mónus from Hungary in 2017, while Ivar Malde from Norway achieved 566.83 m with a Turkish composite bow in 2019."
(Have not found info on the poundage of the bow used nor the arrow type.)
https://www.bow-international.com/featur...f-history/
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#25
Poor Robin Hood wouldn't stand a chance against a Numenorean bowman.
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#26
Concerning the Quendi in their mode of life and growth especially as Compared with Men
"To a Man Elves appear to speak rapidly (but with clarity and precision) unless they a little retard their speech for Men’s sake;
to move quickly and featly, unless in urgency, or much moved, or eager in their work, when the movement of their hands,
for instance, become too swift for human eyes to follow closely. Only their perception, and their thought and reasoning,
seems normally beyond human rivalry in speed."
NoMe, Book One, chapter XII
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#27
The sorcerer in the picture postcard from whence Tolkien derived his vision of Gandalf's appearance described:

"Alas! I only got one called Der Berggeist [‘The
Sorcerer’, lit. ‘The Mountain-spirit’]. On a rock under a pine-tree is seated a
small but broad old man with a wide-brimmed round hat and a long cloak
talking to a white fawn that is nuzzling his upturned hands. He has a
humorous but also compassionate expression – his mouth is visible and
smiling because he has a white beard but no hair on his upper lip.
[...]
The Berggeist has a green hat,
and a scarlet cloak, blue stockings and light shoes. I altered the colours of
hat and cloak to suit Gandalf, a wanderer in the wild, but I have no doubt
that when at ease in a house he wore light blue stockings and shoes."
NoMe, part 3, Bk. VI, Description of Characters.
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#28
I think the bit about Elves speaking fast is published in the excerpt on the Houghton Miffiln site (if that is still live). It sounds familiar.

Hammond and Scull described Der Berggeist in one of their books, I think. I'd have to look that up but it's a bit of trivia that has been floating around Tolkien scholarship for at long time.
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#29
(May 16th, 2022, 01:40 PM)Michael Wrote: I think the bit about Elves speaking fast is published in the excerpt on the Houghton Miffiln site (if that is still live). It sounds familiar.

I find this part the most interesting...:
"in their work, when the movement of their hands, for instance, become too swift for human eyes to follow closely"

... when I imagine elven-smiths putting riveted mail hauberks together.
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#30
(April 27th, 2022, 08:33 PM)Michael Wrote: Poor Robin Hood wouldn't stand a chance against a Numenorean bowman.

I can imagine how the Sheriff of Nottingham must have felt taking on a Numenorean bowman .
Don't insult the precious, my precious!:book:
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#31
"Elves (and their horses) were swifter in movement, hardier, and of greater endurance. At need an Eldarin rider could remain in the saddle for long hours with brief halts and light provision, while his horse maintained a high speed, and they could cover great distances in a day, with only a brief few hours’ rest or sleep before going on again."

"Riding at ease he would journey about 9 hours, and at what was for him and his horse the gentle speed of some 9 miles in the hour. Of this 9 hours he would spend about 1½ hours (more or less) in halts. He would thus only go about 70 miles or less in a day."

"But he could, without wearying himself or his horse, journey for longer hours, and at greater speed. For example, he could journey for 10 hours at an average of 10 mph, spending no more than 1½ hours in halts, and so cover easily 85 miles in a day.[fn2]"

"fn2 At need he could, for at least 2 days together, cover 100 miles a day — and of course in desperate flight or pursuit go faster still, though this would be wearisome, and exhausting to his horse, even if watering was available."
NoMe 3 IX, Elvish journeys on horseback,
From manuscripts associated with the 1970 Of Maeglin text

Note the "in the saddle".

"'You shall ride my horse,' said Glorfindel. 'I will shorten the stirrups up to the saddle-skins, and you must sit as tight as you can."

"A smaller and lighter horse, but restive and fiery, was brought to Legolas. Arod was his name. But Legolas asked them to take off saddle and rein. 'I need them not,' he said, and leaped lightly up, and to their wonder Arod was tame and willing beneath him, moving here and there with but a spoken word: such was the elvish way with all good beasts."

"'I did not know you rode bare-back, Gandalf,' he said. 'You haven't a saddle or a bridle!'
'I do not ride elf-fashion, except on Shadowfax,' said Gandalf. 'But Shadowfax will have no harness."
LotR

"Miss Beare then asked a series of numbered questions. 'Question 1': Why (in the first edition, I. 221) is Glorfindel's horse described as having a 'bridle and bit' when Elves ride without bit, bridle or saddle?"

"Question 1. I could, I suppose, answer: 'a trick-cyclist can ride a bicycle with handle-bars!' But actually bridle was casually and carelessly used for what I suppose should have been called a headstall. Or rather, since bit was added (I 221) long ago (Chapter I 12 was written very early) I had not considered the natural ways of elves with animals. Glorfindel's horse would have an ornamental headstall, carrying a plume, and with the straps studded with jewels and small bells; but Glor. would certainly not use a bit. I will change bridle and bit to headstall."
Letter 211
(Tolkien did change the bridle and bit from the first edition, but left the saddle).
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